ASTM D240 PDF
STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS BY BOMB CALORIMETER. This test method. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. ASTM D Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter.
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ASTM D240-09 – International Standards
Jacket – The calorimeter shall be completely enclosed within a stirred water jacket and supported so that its sides, top, and bottom are approximately 10mm from the jacket wall. Detach the filling connection and exhaust the bomb in the usual manner. Some fuels contain water and particulate matter ash that will degrade calorimetric values. Remove and measure the combined pieces of unburned firing wire, and subtract from the original length.
Analysis of Bomb Contents – Remove the bomb and release the pressure at a uniform rate such that the operation will require not less than 1 minute.
It must be constructed so that any water evaporating from the jacket will not condense on the calorimeter. The same ambient conditions must be maintained for all experiments, including standardization.
ASTM D240 – 17
Observations, Isothermal Jacket Method – Assemble the calorimeter in the jacket and start the stirrer. This shall have a lens and holder designed so as not to introduce significant errors due to parallax.
Masses are measured in grams and no buoyancy corrections are applied. Do not use oil on regulators, gauges, or control equipment.
This procedure is acceptable, provided it is used in all tests, including standardization. Some operators prefer a lower initial temperature so that the final temperature is slightly below that of the jacket. Reweigh the cup with the tape and sample. The direct rays of the sun shall not strike the jacket or thermometers.
Multiple bomb choices are also available, expanding its functionality for higher energy releases An isoperibol calorimeter is one where the surrounding jacket is maintained at a constant temperature while the temperature of the bomb and bucket rise as heat is released by the combustion. Each of these thermometers shall have been tested for accuracy at intervals no larger than 2. Discussion – The fuel can be either liquid or solid, and contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Keep away from heat, sparks, and open flame. After the rapid rise period about 4 to 5 minrecord temperatures at 1-min intervals on the minute until the difference between successive readings has been constant for 5 min.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. The mass heat of combustion, the heat of combustion per unit mass of fuel, is a critical property of fuels intended for use in weight-limited craft such as airplanes, surface effect vehicles, and hydrofoils.
ASTM D – International Standards
Do not drop cylinder. Oxygen – Commercial oxygen produced from liquid air xstm be used without purification. Right-click to open the PDF in a new window or download it: Keep combustibles away from oxygen and eliminate ignition sources.
It can achieve the highest level of precision and accuracy of any oxygen bomb calorimeter.
In this procedure, the combustion takes place at a constant pressure of 0. Checking the Calorimeter for Use with Volatile Fuels – Use 2,2,4-trimethylpentane to determine whether the results obtained agree with the certified value Determine the Energy Equivalent of the Calorimeter – average not less than six tests using standard benzoic acid.
Repeat the standardization tests after changing any part of the calorimeter and occasionally as a check on both calorimeter an operating technique. Product Description Heat of combustion is determined in this test method by burning a weighed sample in an oxygen bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions. Continuous stirring for 10 min shall not raise the calorimeter temperature more than 0. Under normal conditions, this test method is directly applicable to such fuels as gasoline, kerosene, Nos.
Do not take internally. Thermometers – Temperatures in the calorimeter and jacket shall be measured with the following thermometers or combinations thereof: Keep cylinder from corrosive environment. General Use laboratory apparatus balances, baths, blenders, centrifuges, chart recorders, freezers, fume hoods, furnaces, glassware washers, glove boxes, mixers, moisture testing, ovens, pumps, shakers, vacuum equipment, water purification When handling, use chemical safety goggles or face shield, protective gloves, boots, and clothing.
Gross Heat of Combustion – the quantity of energy released when a unit mass of fuel is burned in a constant volume enclosure, with the products being gaseous, other than water that is condensed to the liquid state.
Standardize with potassium acid phthalate and adjust to 0. In this design the oxygen bomb and bucket are removed from the calorimeter for loading the sample and filling the bucket with the carefully measured amount of water which absorbs the energy released in the combustion. Allow 5 min for attainment of equilibrium, then record the calorimeter temperatures at 1-min intervals for 5 min. What are your requirements. Test Room – The room in which the calorimeter is operated must be free from drafts and not subject to sudden temperature changes.
Make sure cylinder is secured at all times. Time intervals are not recorded as they are not critical in the adiabatic method.
These tests should be spaced over a period of not less than three days. A microprocessor-based controller monitors both the temperature of the bucket and the jacket and performs the necessary heat leak corrections that result from differences in these two temperatures.
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