Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use of FreeBSD RELEASE and FreeBSD RELEASE. Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2). Header And Logo. FreeBSD. Peripheral Links. Donate to FreeBSD. Search. Site Navigation. Home · About. THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT. “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED.

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If an escape sequence would produce a byte with value 0, that byte and the rest of the string until the matching single-quote are ignored. A subshell retains the same value of PPID. The trap command has no effect on signals that were ignored on entry to the shell. Shell Patterns A pattern consists of normal characters, which match themselves, and meta-characters.

Otherwise, a complex command or some other special construct may have been recognized. Using aliases in scripts is discouraged because the command that defines them must be executed before the code that uses them is parsed.

Assignments are expanded differently from other words: Any changes do not affect the parent shell environment. Field Splitting is performed on fields generated by step 1 unless the IFS variable is null.

FreeBSD Handbook

This option is recom- mended for those people who have small root partitions. Parameter Expansion The format for parameter expansion is as follows: Otherwise, if the command name does not match kzoknyv function or built-in com- mand, the command is searched for as a normal program in the file system as described in the next section.


The trailing newline is deleted from the line and the line is split as described in the section on White Space Splitting Field Splitting above, and the pieces are assigned to the variables in order. The editor string is a command name, subject to search via the PATH variable.

With the -v option, hash prints the locations of the com- mands as it finds them.

FreeBSD kézikönyv

If a parameter expansion occurs inside double-quotes: This option is a nop on all kziknvy platforms. The exit status is zero. If it is not found in the PATHit is sought in the current working directory. Command Line Editing When sh is being used interactively from a terminal, the current command and the command history see fc in Built-in Commands can be edited using vi -mode command line editing.

The option does not work for build targets. The until command is kzikyv, but has the word until in place of whilewhich causes it to repeat until the exit status of the first list is zero.

The three types of commands are all executed in a different way.

FreeBSD Manual Pages

The following are keywords: For example, the following two invocations of sh both enable the built-in emacs 1 command line editor: If a backslash is followed by any other character, the backslash will be deleted and the following character will be treated as though it were not in IFSeven if it is. This mode uses commands similar to a sub- set of those described in the vi 1 man page. The parameter expansion then results in parameterwith the smallest portion of the suffix matched by the pattern deleted.


The most comprehensive documentation on FreeBSD is in the form of manual pages. The set built-in command can also be used to set or reset them.

Manual pages are divided into sections which represent the type of topic. The parameter expansion then results in parameterwith the largest portion of the prefix matched by the pattern deleted. The option has no effect yet. It will also pre- vent building of gperf 1 and devd 8.

This man page is not intended to be a tutorial nor a complete specification of the shell. This command is documented in editrc 5.

With no arguments whatsoever, the hash command prints out the contents of this table. The shell expands all tokens in the expression for parameter expansion, command substitution, arithmetic expansion and quote removal.

The shell imple- ments a language that has flow control constructs, a macro facility that provides a variety of features in addition to data storage, along with built-in history and line editing capabilities. If utility is a special builtin, it is executed as if it were a regular builtin. Additionally, environment variables are turned into shell variables at startup, which may affect the shell as described under Kziknyb Variables.

If one or more user names are specified, the output is restricted to those users. In FreeBSD, the following sections are available:.