LIVRO BIOLOGIA MARINHA RENATO CRESPO PDF
II 2ª Ed 2ª Ed Biologia Marinha Biologia Marinha Biologia Marinha 4th Ed 12ª Ed .. da Conceição 3 Renato Crespo Pereira e Abílio Soares-Gomes 3 Eugene P. .. Dados e Factos III Seminário de Investigação Livro de Comunicações Ética. Valéria Laneuville Teixeirab, Renato Crespo Pereirab, Éverson Miguel Biancoc, Departamento de Biologia Marinha, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade .. RESENHA_ Livro _O Corcunda de Notre-Dame_ – Victor Hugo ~ Seis Milênios. Valéria Laneuville TeixeiraI, III; Renato Crespo Pereira. IUniversidade Federal Fluminense Instituto de Biologia, Departamento de Biologia Marinha (Outeiro.
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Chemical defense of Hymeniacidon heliophila Porifera: Various benthic organisms have chemical defenses which reduce their predators’ consumption. Although their efficiency may be noticed in many organisms, many of their effects are not well- known yet. Multiple ecological roles of secondary metabolites are shown in some sponges, which may represent an adaptative advantage considering the high amount of energy used to produce these chemical compounds.
The goal of this work was to investigate the defensive property of the extracts from the sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila against the tropical predators: Either the variation in action or the multiple ecological roles of the extracts indicates that different types of compounds can be associated to the defensive system produced by H.
Hymeniacidon heliophilachemical defenses, predation, tropical predators. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar as propriedades defensivas de extratos da esponja Hymeniacidon heliophila contra predadores tropicais: Sponges are a rich source of secondary metabolites, producing the most numerous and marinhw compounds BLUNT, and previous reviews with wide mrinha of biological activities, such as cytotoxic, ichthyotoxic, anti-bacteria, anti-fungic and neurotoxic e.
Many of these chemicals are also known to have various ecological roles, mainly as a defense against consumers in sponges from the tropical and temperate Pacific, Mediterranean and Caribbean CIMINO et al. Other omnivorous invertebrates also can prey sponge tissue, as hermit crabs pers.
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Therefore, these chemicals can be a response to this elevated consumption pressure. Most of chemical ecological studies revealed that the function of sponge secondary metabolites is to deter predation by fishes e.
Despite the large literature about sponges chemical defenses in the Guam – tropical Pacific e. The genus Hymeniacidon is widely distributed in the world. The goal of this work was to investigate the defensive property of the extracts from the sponge H. Organisms and Collection Site. Sponges were frozen and lyophilized before extraction. Sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and hermit crabs Calcinus tibicen were also collected in the same place.
Specimens of Hymeniacidon heliophila 75 g were cut into small pieces and added to n- hexane in a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of tissue extracted ml. Each extract was separately added into an artificial food in volumetrically appropriated level based on the volume of H. Assays with Calcinus tibicens and Lytechinus variegatus were based on the screen gel assay described in Hay et al. The artificial food consisted of 2.
Before being stirred on the screening, the mix was heated in a microwave oven for 50 s. Control gels were made in the same way, but without any extract. This gel was then poured on a plastic screen previously placed between a glass plate and a PVC mold. After the gel solidification, the mold was removed and the plastic screen was sliced into pieces 10 x 10 squares, ca.
Control mix biplogia poured into the screening material adjacent to the treatment gel. Each pair of food wafers control and treatment was offered to one specimen of Biologai.
Each container was placed into a large aquarium system ca. Crabs and sea urchins were maintained in a l aquaria divided into 5 cells with 1 hermit crab in each with a constant flow of sand-filtered seawater. In fish tests, artificial food was also prepared with carrageenan, powdered squid, and distilled water, but with the use of food pellets as it was previously done in this type of assay PAWLIK et al.
The treatment was prepared by adding 0,9 g of powdered squid and 15 ml of water to 0,4 g of carrageenan in order to yield a final volume of 20 ml and produce a renatto concentration of that found in H. The mixture was vigorously stirred and poured on rectangular mold for pellet preparation 1.
Control pellets were made in the renafo way, but without the addition of crude extract. In natural assemblages of generalist fishes, the individuals were offered two options control and treatment. Each trial set consisted of n ropes containing a pair of pellets – one control and one treatment, that were attached to the sea bottom and exposed to biilogia consumers during the necessary time to obtain any measurable consumption.
After this period, the differential consumption between the remaining pellets percent of mass eaten was measured.
Chemical profile of adults and buds of the chemically defended marine sponge Tethya maza
Normality was verified using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Data obtained in percentage were arcsine transformed. T -test was used on dependent samples to evaluate all results.
However, the oivro CE3 was only effective as chemical defense biologka C. On the contrary, artificial foods prepared with the extracts CE2 and CE3 increased the consumption by L.
All extracts used in experiments high, medium and low polarities were effective to inhibit the consumption by the hermit crab C. On the other hand, both n -hexane and ethyl acetate extracts were effective as chemical defenses against this hermit crab during all experimental time, probably given to its low dissolution in seawater. The hermit crab C.
The defensive action of the three extracts of H. We do not know if these chemicals bioolgia act together and potentiate their effects synergistic effect. Nonetheless, this work showed that chemicals from H. Among the three different extracts, only one produced with n -hexane inhibited the consumption by the sea urchin L. Apparently, the species H. The sponge Hymeniacidon sp. However, the extract tested was not separated by polarity levels.
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Thus, marinna about the nature of substances involved in defensive process is not possible. In general, two experimental approaches are considered to evaluate the defensive action of secondary metabolites in marine environment: In the present work, sympatric approach was applied considering Biiologia.
In fact, the organisms’ living in the same habitat is not enough, just the consumers that live directly or closely associated to hosts are known to consume them HAY, For example, crabs of genus Libinia use the sponge H.
Opposite to that, individuals of L. Considering our results, we can conclude that H. In fish assays, only biologoa medium polarity extract, obtained with extraction using ethyl acetate was effective to avoid predation by these vertebrates. During assays, the fish Stephanolepsis hispidus family Monacanthidae was frequently observed consuming artificial foods even though the defensive system of marine sponges is commonly associated to protection against fishes PAWLIK et al.
Hydrophilic extract of sponge H.
The whole sponge in natura was also offered to L. Crude extract of H. Curiously, in experiments with sea stars, H. These conflicting results reveal that chemical defenses are not absolute. As a consequence, effects of secondary metabolites appear to be determined by the specific effects of each compound on each species of consumer. Different chemicals are known for H.
Besides, some steroidal compounds, such as cholesterol, colestanol, brassicasterol, metilcolesterol, etilcolesterol were registered in H. Broadly distributed among sponge species, the steroidal compounds may also be used in a defensive context.
Nevertheless, secondary metabolites from H. The deterrence in consume of distinct predators provide protection and it is advantageous to surviving of this species in high predation habitats, as tropical ones. More detailed marinhs analysis are needed to elucidate which substances are involved in antipredation defensive system of H.
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